Jocelyn Turnbull collecting air samples
downwind of the Kapuni natural gas plant
in Taranaki in October 2014.
Photo credit: Jessica Mills, GNS Science
We know what the current emission levels are because governments and industry have agreed to report them. For the energy sector, industries and governments track usage of coal, oil and natural gas, and governments tally up the totals and report them to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, following a detailed set of guidelines. As far as we know, those reports have been made in good faith, and reports undergo international peer review, but in a future where we agree to regulate emissions, how can we establish greater trust and be more confident that other nations are meeting their obligations?